The Deceit of the Non-existent Macedonian Question (Christian Evidence)
24.09.11
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The Deceit of the Non-existent

Macedonian Question

(Christian Evidence)

by

Dr. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

Economics/Finance Department

The Arthur J. Kania School of Management

University of Scranton

Scranton, PA 18510-4602

U.S.A.

Tel. (570) 941-7577

Fax (570) 941-4825

E-Mail: jnk353(at)scranton.edu



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September 2011

The Deceit of the Non-existent

Macedonian Question

(Christian Evidence)



Abstract

The objective of this paper is to provide some Christian evidence (during the Christianization of Greek-Macedonians in year 50 A.D.) and a scientifically true analysis on the Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what this information regarding Macedonia means to us and to the uninformed world as a whole. We will offer some thoughts and unshaken historic events that may help to answer questions concerning today’s conditions in south-eastern Europe, the borders of the “Christendom” (currently, the under decomposition European Union). It is imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human beings have this information regarding an artificial state, Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia, because we are responsible for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific delusion. This new Slavic state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” for its nation and Greece is objecting their aggressiveness and their expansiveness. It is historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have nothing in common with Greeks since they appeared in the region in the 7th century A.D. and their old name was Vardarska. How can they found their new establishing state on an incredible lie?


I. Introduction

Hellenic history and culture have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today. The democracy of ancient Greece,1 the accomplishments of her people,2 the great ideas of her moral philosophers,3 scientists and artists,4 and finally, the dramatic events, which have unfolded in the glorious history of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in Christian truth have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations.5 Even though that Greece has truly improved mankind, the West was and is against Greeks and their achievements.6 The comparative advantage of Greece is her civilization!7

The ancient Hellenic civilization is called the “classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards, by which subsequent achievements can be measured.8 “There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few comparisons.”9 These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written literature)10 and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes” (Ελληνες), which they did not share with other men. They belonged, as they felt, to “Hellas”.11 The non-Greeks were “barbarians”. The achievement and importance of Greece comprehended all sides of life. “The Greeks did more for future civilization than any of their predecessors.”12 All Europe drew interest on the “capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human civilization. Many objective people recognize it because, “on most subjects, the Greeks said it first and said it well”.13 Alexander, the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”. He was a passionate Hellene,14 who believed Achilles15 was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle. Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he died at the age of 33 years old. The history of Europe is the history of the Western civilization (a Greek-Christian civilization).16 Indisputably, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek (Hellenic) civilization.17 Today, the European Union has changed drastically because of so many influences by different sub-cultures. “European, or Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th century A.D.”18 Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions in Ancient Greece, i.e., “the Common of Euboeans”, in 2nd century B.C.,19 where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time because of the oppression on their weaker member-states. We hope that this will not be repeated with the current Union.

History, scientific truth, divine justice, morality, human respect, and International Law are social necessities and they require satisfaction. Otherwise, this world cannot proceed towards its perfection. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and his values and virtues and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (Κόσμος = order, ornament). Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation. Nations, also, need to pass their time in peace, in respect, in justice, and by supporting their citizens and the other independent nations or else they will face the Divine Justice.

Today, the Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU), remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors (the barbarian Turks since the 11th century A.D.)20 and lately, since the fall of the communism, the desperate Skopjeans have begun to make claims against northern Greece because they need to create a national history to found their pseudo-state. They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and disinformation everywhere in all the “controlled” nations,21 the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. But the question remains, how can these newcomers Slavs be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state as “Macedonia”? This world has lost completely its values and purpose!


II. A Rapid Historical March

During the ancient times, the entire area of Greece was divided into city-states, but they had the same language, religion, culture, and civilization. They encouraged cooperation among city-states and cultivation of the intellect and the fine arts. As they were growing, they were starting to establish colonies along the costal regions of the Mediterranean. These cities were united for times against common foreign enemies; i.e., during the Persian wars, which lasted from the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. to the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) to the naval battle of Salamis (479 B.C.), and the battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.

The Classical Period (480-323 B.C.) marked the height of Greek cultural development. As the leader of the Delian Confederacy, an alliance among the main Greek city-states, Athens flourished both economically and culturally. The wealth that they accumulated from shipping, trading, and tribute from allies enabled the Athenians to beautify their city with buildings, temples, theaters, and other magnificent monuments. Under their leader Pericles, architects designed and constructed buildings on the Acropolis, in the Agora and the surrounding area. In the cultural sphere, philosophers, poets, historians, orators, and artists produced some of the greatest works of art and literature. The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes; the architects Ictinus and Callicrates; the sculptors Pheidias, Scopas, and Praxiteles; the historian Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon;22 the orator Demosthenes; the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all lived during this time. The Golden Age of Athens.

From 450 B.C. to 300 B.C., it was the intellectual period, where Socrates taught about the soul and spoke of the Unknown God23 hoping that He would reveal Himself. Plato and Aristotle made significant contributions to human thought with their moral philosophy and their foundations on almost every science (except Probability Theory), while sculptors such as Pheidias, Scopas, Praxiteles, and others experimented with new forms of artistic expression by putting the standard for the future and beautified Athens. Xenophon was also the father of the new moral discipline of Economics (Οἰκονομικός).24

At the same time, a new Greek city-state (Πέλλα=Pella), more powerful politically began to emerge in Macedonia (the Northern part of Greece).25 In the four decades before the Hellenistic Period (323-146 B.C.), the Macedonians under King Philip II (359 B.C.) forcefully united most of the Greek city-states after defeating Athens and Thebes in battle at Chaeronea, and built a powerful Hellenic confederacy.26 The illustrious Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, schooled by Aristotle, embarked on a historic expedition in 336 B.C. to conquer the vast empire of the Persians (punish them for their past invasions of Greece). In only eleven years he subdued this mighty foe and extended Hellenic influence, language, civilization, and paideia far into Africa and Asia, as far as India.27 Alexander’s achievement marked the height of Hellenic military power.28

Following Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), violent and frequent warfare among rival Greek (Hellenic) leagues tore apart the Empire. These conflicts rendered the Greek city-states vulnerable to invasion. Finally, in 146 B.C., after fifty years of war, Roman legions conquered Greece. Although conquered, the Greek culture “subjugated” the Roman culture. During and after the Hellenistic Period, the classical Greek culture and Greek language were dominant throughout the Orient.29 In A.D. 50, the Apostle Paul preached Christianity in Greece, and from the time when he spoke to the Athenians about their “Unknown God”, for whom they already had a temple, a common religion, the Hellenic Orthodoxy united them and made them an inseparable group, the Greek-Orthodox people.30 Many people believed to Jesus Christ and two Athenians became disciples of St. Paul from the first day, a man named Dionyssios31 (a Judge in the Supreme Court in Athens) and a woman, Damaris.32 Also, the use of the Greek language in writing the Gospel and by the Eastern Church and her fathers gave a new dimension to Hellenic culture and created the spiritual Medieval Hellenic (Byzantine) culture. No Slavo-Macedonian language anywhere in the region because Slavs came seven centuries later in the area from the north-central Europe.33

The Christianization of the Roman Empire in 313 A.D. and the building of Constantinople (325 A.D.) by the Constantine the Great launched Greece along a different historical and cultural path. The relocation of the capital from Rome to the site of ancient Byzantium contributed to the preeminence of Greek culture as a source of political power, and in the end the impact of Hellenism proved irresistible. For the next eleven centuries, until the fall of Constantinople on Tuesday, May 29, 1453, the Greek language and culture refashioned by Orthodox Christianity, formed the sinews of the Byzantine Empire, the Medieval Hellenic Empire.

During those eleven centuries of the Byzantine Period (324-1453 A.D.), Byzantine and Greek history were virtually inseparable. All Greeks had abandoned paganism and adopted Christianity. This led to a magnificent flowering of Byzantine spiritual culture, hymnography, architecture, literature, art, mostly in the form of monastic frescoes and new religious iconography.34 The fall of Constantinople to the barbarian Ottomans propelled Greece into her darkest period. The “inhospitable of the history” Muslim Turks, who came from the Far East Asia (Mongolia) and had nothing in common with the Hellenic-Orthodox values, ruled Greece with a cruel and ruthless hand throughout much of the Middle Ages. Even though, Greeks kept an inextinguishable awareness of their glorious past and ethnicity and their true faith through the Orthodox Church, monasteries, and the memories passed on from generation to generation.

The Byzantine (Medieval Greek) Empire was the continuation of the Alexander’s the Great Empire and of the Roman Empire.35 It was their evolution and transformation in the East. The transposition of the center of gravity of the Ancient Greece and the Roman nation from West to East (3rd century A.D.), the transfer of the capital not in Athens, but to an area predominance of the Greek spirit and language and at the same time not the pagan gods of the past, but the intense effect of Orthodoxy; all these combined, created the starting point of one autonomous historic march of the eastern sphere of the Empire. Byzantium was a new political form, where Hellenism and Orthodoxy created a new culture (τήν ̔Ελληνορθόδοξον Παιδείαν).36

The Byzantine Orthodox hymns37 emphasize that the people of Byzantium are the “people of the Lord”. The same can be seen in other historic texts and it is clear that the perception of the Empire’s role as a divinely guided entity prevailed throughout the world of Byzantium.38 The citizens of the Byzantium are understood to be the “chosen” people of God, the genuine Christian people of the “God guarded” Christian-Orthodox nation, compared with the heterodox of the west; of course, no comparison can be made with the allodox or pagans of today. During its whole journey in history, Byzantium had the same strong perception that among the fundamental goals of the nation was the protection of the Christian faith, its propagation, and its perpetuation until the Second Coming. Surrounded most of the time by nations of other religions, the Christian people were obliged to defend their faith, because in this way, they saved their national identity.39 They had a strong involvement in religious strifes, an exceptional sensitivity towards heresies, and dogmatic opposition.

Byzantines were defending their religious unity because in it they viewed the unity of their communities, “in a community where all, laymen and clergymen relied on the Christian faith for their existence, and reach a point where every act was judged from a religious point of view”.40 The faithful awaited the blessing of the church to attain a better life, not only in the other world but also in this earthly one. Every faithful was giving to the church, without reservation, the right to involve in his every day life. The church blessed his marriage, his house, his animals, his fields, his crops, his bread, his water, and the schools. The church exercised a leading and deterministic role in every aspect of his existence.41

Uprising against the Turk conquerors occurred sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, but it was not until the early nineteenth century that the modern Greek Nation evolved (confined by her allies only on the European side of the Byzantine Empire), commensurate with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. On March 25, 1821, Greeks resumed their march through history again. A revolutionary army composed of patriots from Peloponnesos, Sterea Ellada, and the Aegean Islands began to battle the Turkish armies. Although both sides scored success, the conflict soon reached a stalemate. At the request of the Sultan, the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha invaded Greece, thus allowing for intervention by the three great European powers (France, England, and Russia) on the side of the Greek insurgents.

In the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, the Greek government tried to extend her sovereignty over all adjacent lands inhabited by Greeks for many centuries (since the 10th century B.C. and earlier, according to historic evidences). Greece was euphoric over the success of her armies in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and in World War I. In spite of frustrating oppositions between King Constantine and Prime Minister Venizelos, part of Greece had at least been freed and was able to join the “entente” and contribute to the allies’ final victory, thus assuring the country’s good will, which future plans would require. After all these war successes, came and the just ultimate objective of the country, “the Great Idea”.42 Venizelos lobbied hard at the 1918 Paris peace conference, urgently presenting his views for an expanded Greece not to include all the territories that Medieval Greece had in the 15th century, but to include only the large Greek Communities in Asia Minor (today occupied, Western Turkey).43 Most important was the real need to protect the Greek population in that part of Asia Minor, which was subjected to harsh treatment by the Turks during World War I and later, in 1922 and 1955 (genocide of Greeks in Asia Minor).

In 1939, World War II broke out in Europe and by 1940 most countries of Europe had surrendered and Hitler had the Continent of Europe in his grip. On October 28, 1940 Mussolini decided to take over Greece with an easy victory based on his numbers and mechanized forces. He attacked Greece from Albania. The Greeks with their Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas stood up and said “Ochi” (OXI = No, you shall not pass) and these heroic forefathers of today’s Greeks fought with a will, hurling back the aggressors. The Duce’s divisions were soon pushed back into Albania and for six months were fighting to maintain a hold on the sea-cost, desperately calling for help.44 When Germany entered the war against Greece with the most powerful army in Europe, the Greeks continued to fight both of these big empires although reason must have told them that their position was hopeless. Beside their British comrades, they continued to resist stubbornly on the Island of Crete.

Finally, Greece fell, but it cost Hitler thousands of his finest youth, and delayed for two months his attack against Russia. German troops ran into the dreadful Russian winter and the Russians imposed such appalling losses that it contributed to the ultimate defeat of Germany.45 The occupation, great famine, resistance and subsequent liberation of Greece followed, and then came the “December Movement”, in which Greek communists fought their brother Greeks. This civil war (κομμουνιστοσυμμοριτοπόλεμος) ended in August 29, 1949 with the defeat of communists. England helped Greece first and later, the United States helped with the Marshall plan, which lent Greece to a new era and made her one of the most important allies of the West; but, her ignorant politicians threw the country, without a referendum, to the nails of the anti-Greek European Union.


III. Christian Evidence

Looking at sources outside Greece, in the Acts of the Apostles, the Apostle Paul writes of his travels in Macedonia. He refers to Greek cities (Νεάπολις=Neapolis, Φίλιπποι=Philippi, Θεσσαλονίκη=Thessalonica, Βέροια=Verea, etc.) and men and women with Greek names. One gets an impression of a Greek environment, attitude, and culture being present in Macedonia. Here, it must be noted that Macedonia was the main gate of the entrance of Christianity in the European Continent. Let us bear in mind the vision of the Apostle Paul that night in Troy, which determined the following Christianization of Europe. “So, passing by Mysia,46 they went down to Troas. During the night Paul had a vision: there stood a man of Macedonia pleading with him and saying. ‘Come over to Macedonia and help us.’ When he had seen the vision, we immediately tried to cross over to Macedonia, being convinced that God had called us to proclaim the good news to them.”47 It is characteristic that the Apostle of the Nations, addressing himself to the Macedonians, was preaching the Word of God and writing his letters in the Greek language. There is no Macedonian language or non-Greek Macedonians anywhere. These people, who were Christianized by St. Paul (in year 50 A.D.) were Greek-Macedonians. The Slav-pseudo-Macedonians were Christianized by the Greek brothers, Methodios and Kyrillos much later (9th century A.D.)48 because they were not Greeks and they were living far away in the North of Greece in Dardania.

The vision of the “Macedonian man” in the book of “The Acts of the Apostles” (Αἱ Πράξεις τῶν ̓Αποστόλων), the letters of the Apostle Paul, “To the Philippians” (Πρός Φιλιππησίους) and “To the Thessalonians” (Πρός Θεσσαλονικεῖς Α ́ καὶ Β ́) and all the other references in the Old and New Testaments concerning Macedonia constitute unassailable and infallible testimony of her Greekness. Not only these, but the continuous and uninterrupted line of bishops and saints; the great number of churches and monasteries found throughout the Macedonian regions (even within the borders of the Democracy of Skopje) as well as the Monastic Community of the Holy Mountain with its sovereign Greek characteristics and its spiritual light shining upon Orthodox Nations near and far, give holy evidences that Macedonia is Greek.

Saint Timothy accompanied Saint Paul to Macedonia, to Philippi, to Thessalonica, and to Verea (or Berea). “Many of them [in Berea] therefore believed, including Greek women and men of high standing.>>49 When the apostle Paul left Verea, Timothy and Silas remained there to confirm the converts. Then, when St. Paul went to Athens (in 51 A.D.), he asked Timothy to come to him and later, Timothy was sent back to Thessalonica because he had an account of the churches of Macedonia. After some time Timothy went with Silas to Corinth to meet St. Paul. Saints Timothy and Silas are mentioning at the beginning of the two Epistles of St. Paul to Thessalonians.50 This entire region was Greek, with the same language and culture, made up by different cities under the Roman occupation. With the exception of some Latin tribal settlements, the basic population of Macedonia was Greek ( Ελληνες).

Concerning ancient Macedonia, it is needful only to speak of the stones and the archaeological treasures of Vergina, Dion (Δῖον),51 and other areas to silence the forgers of history. Of Christian Macedonia, the unceasing chorus of the Holy Scriptures, the Churches, the Monasteries, the Saints (i.e., Methodios and Kyrillos), the Byzantine Hymns, and frescos (well-paintings) shout the truth. Above all the icon of Saint Demetrios, who on horseback guards vigilantly the Walls of Thessaloniki and strikes with his spear the vanquished invader prone upon the ground, speaks of the Greekness of Macedonia. And all invaders from that time to the present, whether ancient barbarians or the would-be conquerors of present day Skopje, have all dreamed to go down to Thessaloniki and to the Aegean Sea with no hope of success! The Greek defenders will prevail because the right, the truth, and the justice are on their side.

Skopjeans went beyond any limit from their confusion and the difficulties that they have to persuade themselves and the anti-Greek West. They try with any mean to prove that they are the legitimate off-springs of Alexander the Great and they put statues of Alexander and of other Ancient Greeks to their squares and public buildings. Also, they give these Ancient Greek names to their roads and other places. But, the most outrageous delusion, in which they fell, was that they declared as saint of their self-proclaimed “Macedonian orthodox church”, Alexander the Great, who lived 350 years before the coming of Jesus Christ. Thus, they made the Greek Alexander the Great as “Saint Alexander the Macedonian”.52


IV. Concluding Remarks

The role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic (and as time passes the vast majority of people will realize it) because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture ( ̔Ελληνορθόδοξος Παιδεία)? The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. Christian evidences confirm the Greekness of Macedonia and the choice by God of the Greek Alexander the Great to spread the Greek language to the entire known world. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for seven thousand years, obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the “civilized” (but ignorant) world and the hordes of barbarians (that God allows them to dominate for some time, due to our sins). One representative of this Hellenic race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek commander of the army, who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.53

The name “Macedonia” was given by Tito and was used for this Yugoslav democracy only since 1945,54 but it was identified for many centuries with Greek civilization and Greek history. Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of Macedonia becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries recognized this new government was Bulgaria and Turkey. The stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition or by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally, if Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and unite with Greece, then, they will become Greeks by culture and paideia, not by blood, and at the end, they will be Macedonians (as Greeks living in Macedonia).

It is clear when, objectively examined, that the “Macedonian Question” for Greece cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue.55 The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of Neigy (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for more than 4,000 years.

Only Greece ought to have territorial claims against neighboring states since a vast area of her is still under occupation. Even though that she has faced all these injustices, she regards all borders, which have been consecrated with international treaties, and which have been legalized (ratified) with the Final Act of Helsinsky as inviolable. Considering Greek Macedonia, the ethnological homogeneity of the area renders her un-attackable from the various claims that have appeared in the past with the pretext of minority demands. It is natural, for someone to consider the existence of this problem and in the long-run it can include risks, which are possible to involve, the sensitive area of Balkan, into new tribulations. For this reason, Greece looks positively to every effort, which tends to reduce this formerly intense dispute peacefully and hopefully the international community (EU and U.S.A.) will assist her.

For these reasons, Greece is opposing the recognition of an independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name “Macedonia” (or any composite name having as one component the word “Macedonia”). Of course, this does not mean that Greece is against the Skopjeans right to establish their own independent nation and have their own language, history, and traditions. All people have the right to self-determination of their future; of course, this choice is confined within the limits of International Law (or legality). Greece, however cannot accept the use of the Macedonian name by any nation, which is in all other respects Slavic. The terms “Macedonia-Macedonians” and names of similar relevance belong to Hellas and Hellenes (Greece and Greeks). They constitute Greece’s national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and especially in the area of Macedonia. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of Greece, exactly as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, misguided, and calculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort.

The fact, that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any longer. The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions (all Greek) with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.56 Also, the spreading of the Greek language, the Greek civilization, and the Greek culture to the entire known world from the Greek Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Πέλλα (Pella), Βεργίνα (Vergina), Δῖον (Dion), and (Σίνδος) Sindos, or in dozens less known, like in areas of Βόϊον (Voion), Αἰανή (Aeani), Κοζάνη (Kozani), Καστοριά (Kastoria), Φλώρινα (Florina), Εδεσσα (Edessa), Αριδαία (Aridaea), Κιλκίς (Kilkis), Καβάλα (Kavala), and of course, Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki) and Χαλκιδική (Chalkidiki)57 with Πετράλωνα (Petralona), and others. Even the minister of the U.S. Foreign Affairs, Edward Stettinius, had sent in December 26, 1944 to all the diplomatic offices of the U.S.A. an elucidative and attributive encyclical, in which he says that the “Macedonian Issue” is an unjustifiable demagogy coming mainly from Bulgaria and does not represent a reality.58

Finally, Greece, every Greek, and every one who has an objective knowledge of history are opposed to Skopje’s name as “Macedonia”. Skopje’s peoples are not properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and culture, to one or another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic states (they have nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of Skopje as “Macedonia” is historically, scientifically, morally, and legally wrong. Skopjean propaganda in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world is unconscionable, constant, and provocative.59 If Skopje were to give up the policy of misappropriating the term “Macedonians”; if it were to adopt, for instance, another term, (such as “Vardarians” or “Dardanians” or “Sclavinians”)60 in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of Yugoslav Macedonia and possibly certain émigré groups who share its views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no quarrel with this state of affairs. There is a big campaign from Greeks all over the world to inform the international community and especially the Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou, as well as the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the mayor of Thessaloniki, Yannis Boutaris, who act against Greece’s interest and rights. The counterfeiting of Greek history became easy the last years because the Greek governments did not react against this forgery. They are busy imposing the abolition of Hellenism and Orthodoxy from Greece,61 when the others (Skopjeans, Turks, and Albanians)62 are promoting with success their propaganda all over the world.63 These Greek leaders (after 1974), who advance Henry Kissinger’s plan for the destruction of Hellenic-Orthodox heritage, have to be ostracized from Greece.


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Davies, Norman (1998), Europe: A History, Harper Perennial, New York, N.Y., U.S.A.

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Jones, Nicholas F. (1997), Ancient Greece: State and Society, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., U.S.A.

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011a), “The Deception of the Inexistent Macedonian Question (Linguistic Evidence)”, Hellas on the Web, January 20, 2011, pp. 1-31.  http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-32-27/2010-04-06-11-49-23/1061-the-deception-of-the-inexistent-macedonian-question

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011b), “Historical Evidence on the Greekness of Macedonia (1)”, Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία,  Ιστορία, January 25, 2011, pp.1 6. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/01/25/historical-evidence-on-the-greekness-of-macedonia-1/

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011c), “Historical Evidence on the Greekness of Macedonia (2)”, Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία,  Ιστορία, January 30, 2011, pp. 1-19. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/01/30/historical-evidence-on-the-greekness-of-macedonia-2/

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011d), “Skopjeans’ Delusion on the Macedonian Issue: Some Linguistic Evidence”, Antibaro, May 6, 2011, pp. 1-12.  http://www.antibaro.gr/node/3003

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011e), “Linguistic Evidence on the Macedonian Question”, Christian Vivliografia, May 28, 2011, pp. 1-21. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/05/28/linguistic-evidence-on-the-macedonian-question/

Kallianiotis, I.N.(2011f), –– Αντιορθόδοξος καὶ Ανθελληνική η Φθορά της Ελληνικης Γλώσσης, Αγιος Αγαθάγγελος Εσφιγμενίτης, Ετος ΜΑ ́, Τευχος 244, Μάρτιος-Απρίλιος  2011,σσ. 24-30.

Kallianiotis, I.N.(2010a), << Η Ρωμανία  Επάρθεν (Greece under Occupation’), Αγιος Αγαθάγγελος Εσφιγμενίτης, Ετος Μ ́, Τευχος 237, Ιανουάριος-Φεβρουάριος 2010, σσ. 29-33.

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010b), “A Historic Perspective of the Macedonian Question and the EU’s Alienation from the Problem”,  Αντίβαρο, (http://www.antibaro.gr/node/1500), May 3, 2010-17:05, pp. 1-29.

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010c), “European Union and Historical Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question”, Hellas on the Web, May 5, 2010, pp. 1-23. (http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-32-27/2010-04-06-11-49-23/569-european-union-and-historical-hellas-the-fabricated-macedonian-question)

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010d), <<Η Τρέχουσα Κρίσις της  Ελλάδος εστί Κρίσις  Ηγεσίας (The Current Crisis of Greece is a Leadership Crisis)>>, Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία, ΕΠΙΚΑΙΡΟΤΗΤΑ, 3 Ιουνίου 2010, σσ. 1-4. (http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2010/06/03/).

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010e), << Ορθόδοξα Βαλκάνια· Ο Εσχατος Στόχος των σκοτεινών δυνάμεων-Μέρος Α ́ (Orthodox Balkans: The Last Target of the Dark Powers-Part I)̈̈, Βοανεργές, Αρ. Τεύχους 49, Μ́άϊος- Ιούνιος 2010, σσ. 25-33.

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010f), –– Ορθόδοξα Βαλκάνια· Ο Εσχατος Στόχος των Σκοτεινων Δυνάμεων-Μέρος Β ́ (Orthodox Balkans: The Last Target of the Dark Powers-Part II)̈̈, Βοανεργές, Αρ. Τεύχους 50, Ιούλιος-Αυγουστος 2010, σσ. 53-61.

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010g), “The Sacrilegious Alliance and their Envy towards the Historical Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question (An Archaeological Perspective of the Problem)”, Hellas on the Web, September 5, 2010-14:11, pp. 1-15.
http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-32-27/2010-04-06-11-49-23/791-the-sacrilegious-alliance-and-their-envy-towards

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010h), “The Unholy Alliance and Historical Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question (An Archaeological Perspective of the Problem)”, Antibaro, September 6, 2010-22:55, pp. 1-24. http://www.antibaro.gr/print/node/1939 .

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010i), “An Archaeological Perspective of the Macedonian Question”, Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία, ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ, 11  Οκτωβρίου 2010, σσ. 1-7. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2010/10/11/an-archaeological-perspective-of-the-macedonian-question/

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010j) << Η Θεική  Ελληνική Γλωσσα>>, (The Divine Hellenic Language), Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφια, Γλωσσα, 12 Νοεμβρίου 2010, σσ. 1-4. (http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2010/11/12/ ).

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010k), “The Suspicious games of the West against Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question (Historical Evidence)”, Macedonia Hellenic Land, 9 December 2010, pp. 1-29. http://www.macedoniahellenicland.eu/content/view/1301/78/lang,el/

Kallianiotis, I.N. (2010l), “The Suspicious games of the West against Hellas: The Fabricated Macedonian Question (Historical Evidence)”, Hellas on the Web, December 9, 2010, pp.1-43. http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-32-27/2010-04-06-11-49-23/961-the-suspicious-games-of-the-west-against-hellas-the-fabricated-macedonian-question

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Kallianiotis, I. N. (1992), Hellas: A Swift Historical Journey and the Macedonian Question, Hellenic Orthodox Church of the Annunciation, Scranton, PA, U.S.A.

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1 See, Jones (1997).

2 See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).

3 See, Marchant and Todd (1997)

4 See, Pedley (1998).

5 But, at the same time, Hellas faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions (allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia.

6 See, <<Γιατί Φθονουν τούς Ελληνες;>>, Christian Vivliografia, August 31, 2011. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/08/31/%ce%b3%ce%b9%ce%b1%cf%84%ce%af-%cf%86%ce%b8%ce%bf%ce%bd%ce%bf%e1%bf%a6%ce%bd-%cf%84%ce%bf%e1%bd%ba%cf%82-%e1%bc%95%ce%bb%ce%bb%ce%b7%ce%bd%ce%b5%cf%82/

7 << ̓Εμεις οι Ελληνες θά πρέπει νά κάνωμε τόν πολιτισμόν μας στρατηγικό αξονα της ̔Ελληνικης πολιτικης, εσωτερικης καὶ διεθνους.>> ( ̓Ερατοσθένης Καψωμένος).

8 With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Παν μέτρον αριστον), “Know thyself” (Γνωθι σαυτόν), and thousands others; they set the foundations and advanced the world.

9 See, Davies (1998, p. 95).

10 See, Kallianiotis (2011f and 2010j).

11 Hellenes had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (ομαιμον, ὁμόγλωσσον καὶ ὁμόθρησκον), according to Herodotus ( ̔Ηρόδοτος), 5th century B.C. See, Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179).

12 See, Roberts (1997, p. 43).

13 See, Snodgrass (1998).

14 See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).

15 See, Homer’s Iliad.

16 The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up to the 9th century A.D., before its barbaric invasions from West and North. See, Sakarellos (2005).

17 See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and Paparrigopoulos (2003).

18 See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).

19 See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168).

20 This was the Battle of Manzikert. See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Manzikert

21 Mahathir Mohamad, former leader of Malaysia, said that “Jewish groups secretly control the World’s great powers”. See, The Wall Street Journal, October 9-10, 2010, p. A1 and A11.

22 See, Xenophon: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenophon

23 After 350 years, Saint Paul went to Athens, in A.D. 51, to preach this Unknown God (the True God). <<Σταθείς δέ ο Παυλος εν μέσω του Αρείου Πάγου εφη ανδρες ̓Αθηναιοι, κατά πάντα ως δεισι-δαιμονεστέρους υμας θεωρω. Διερχόμενος γάρ καὶ αναθεωρων τά σεβάσματα υμων ευρον καὶ βωμόνεν ω επεγέγραπτο, αγνώστω Θεω, ον ουν αγνοουντες ευσεβειτε, τουτον εγώ καταγγέλλω υμιν.>> (Πράξ. ιζ ́ 22-23).

24 For Socrates, human flourishing (ευδαιμονία=eudaimonia) was the goal, rather than great accumulation of material goods. Xenophon accepts private property and the division of labor within certain ethical limits. In his work, the development of the ethical approach to household management (οἰκονομία=oikonomia or οἰκονομική=oikonomikē), or microeconomics, within the context of the Greek city (πόλις=polis) can be seen. Friendship (φιλία=philia) and gentlemanship (καλοκαγαθία=kalokagathia) are discussed together with οἰκονομία=oikonomia as a united package. There is a strong linkage between ethics and economics in Socrates and Xenophon. See, James E. Alvey
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=03068293&volume=38&issue=8&articleid=1938121&show=html&PHPSESSID=bp02n332v1d875m2qqo2n772k5&&nolog=142950 .

25 We can see their coins, too; all the inscriptions and names on them are in Greek. For more information see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon

26 Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (ομαιμον, ομόγλωσσον καὶ ομόθρησκον), according to Herodotus ( ̔Ηρόδοτος), 5th century B.C. and many other similarities as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them.

27 There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in northern Iran.

28 From 404 to 338 B.C. hegemonies of Sparta, Thebes, and Macedonia (area of Northern Greece) appeared. From 359-336 B.C., the reign of Philip of Macedonia took place. From 338-323 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the entire Asia; he went to India and Africa, too. The Old Persian Empire, which had invaded Greece many times in the past, was overrun by the Greek-Macedonians. In 322 B.C., Greek-Macedonians took over Athens and overturned the Athenian democracy. From 323 to 272 B.C., Alexander’s successors sought domination and the Hellenistic Kingdoms were created in Greece and the rest of the Empire – of Macedonia (with Antigonus), of Egypt (with Ptolemy), [The tomb of Alexander the Great was discovered by the Greek archeologist Liana Souvaltzi. See, Souvaltzi (2002).] and of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran (with Seleucus). “Under the sponsorship of Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic Kingdoms that succeeded it, Greek culture spread over the whole Mediterranean world, and in the first century B.C. achieved a thorough intellectual conquest of the imperial Roman republic, its military conqueror.” [Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p. 10)].

29 Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time. This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were “barbarians” outside the Hellenic culture and paideia (παιδεία). This is the historic truth and not what some pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history.

30 The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too. This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people.

31 See, Διονύσιος ο ̓Αρεοπαγίτης, Φιλοκαλία των Νηπτικων καὶ ̓Ασκητικων, Πατερικαί ̓Εκδόσεις––Γρηγόριος ο Παλαμας̈̈ Θεσσαλονίκη 1986.

32 ––Τινές δέ ανδρες κολληθέντες αυτω επίστευσαν, εν οις καὶ Διονύσιος ο ̓Αρεοπαγίτης καὶ γυνή ονόματι Δάμαρις καὶ ετεροι σύν αυτοις. Πράξ. ιζ 34.

33 In the 7th century A.D., various Slavic tribes (Dragouvitae, Strymonitae, Sagouditae, etc.) began settling in the Macedonian region. With the permission of Byzantine (Greek) authorities these tribes set up small Slavic enclaves known to the Byzantines as “Sclaviniae”. Throughout the 7th century, the Slavs continually fought against the Byzantine authorities and repeatedly attacked (without success) the city of Thessaloniki. See, Kallianiotis (1992), p. 33).

34 See, Kallianiotis (2009).

35 See, Vasiliev (1980).

36 The contribution of the three hierarchs (Sts. Vassilios, Grigorios, and Ioannis) is unique in the connection of the ancient Greek moral paideia with the Christian revealed values.

37 ––Σωσον Κύριε τόν λαόν Σου καὶ ευλόγησον τήν κληρονομίαν Σου, νίκας τοις βασιλευσι κατά βαρβάρων δωρούμενος καὶ τόν Σόν φυλάττον διά του Σταυρου Σου πολίτευμα.>> Hymn chanting on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.

38 The same beliefs continue to hold even today in the Greek Orthodox nation and the Greeks of Diaspora, who are more than 100 million people of Greek origin spread around the world. This unique culture is inconceivable by any other sub-culture.

39 The problem that Greece is facing today is the dilution of her identity due to millions of Muslims illegal immigrants that Turkey is smuggling into the Greek nation. This is a new Turkish invasion to Greece after the previous one in 1974 in Northern Cyprus.

40 See, Tamara Rice, ̔Ο δημόσιος καὶ ιδιωτικός βίος των Βυζαντινων, μετ. Φ. Βωρος, Παπαζήσης, ̓Αθηναι, σ. 94.

41 These things are exactly what we find in Orthodox Greece today, even though communist and socialist regimes tried very hard, lately, to change this strong union between the state and the church. The church’s role, the hymns, the customs, the hospitality, the food, the social events, and the entire way of life in Byzantium can be found in the Greece of today, which is the continuation of the Medieval Greek Empire, the Byzantine Empire.

42 “The Great Idea”, a historically just and fair aspiration for the nation that civilize the world, was ever in the hearts and minds of the heroic and faithful revolutionists during the war of independence and the Greeks allover the world today, but their “friends” had different plans. Of course, nations do not exist by chance; they have a mission to accomplish.

43 The Greek regions that are under occupation today are: North Epirus (under Albania), North Macedonia (under Skopje), North Thrace and Eastern Rumelia (under Bulgaria), Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor, the Islands of Imvros, Tenedos, and Northern Cyprus (under Turkey). This is the historic truth and cannot change.

44 This victory of Greeks was a miracle from Panagia for their fair and just defense of their country.

45 Germany has not yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to Greece and her citizens.

46 Mysia (Greek: Μυσία) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor. It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Phrygians, Aeolian Greeks, and other groups. As we see from the names of the cities, all are Greek names.

47 See, Acts ις ́ (16) 8-10. ––Παρελθόντες δέ τήν Μυσίαν κατέβησαν εις Τρῳάδα. Καὶ οραμα διά της νυκτός ωφθη τω Παύλω ανήρ τις ην Μακεδών εστώς, παρακαλων αυτόν καὶ λέγων· διαβάς εις Μακεδονίαν βοήθησον ημιν. ̔Ως δέ τό οραμα ειδεν, ευθέως εζητήσαμεν εξελθειν εις Μακεδονίαν, συμβιβάζοντες οτι προσκέκληται ημας ο Κύριος ευαγγελίσασθαι αυτούς. ̓Αναχθέντες ουν από της Τρῳάδος ευθυδρομήσαμεν εις Σαμοθράκην, τη δέ επιούση εις Νεάπολιν, εκειθέν τε εις Φιλίππους,ητις εστί πρώτη της μερίδος της Μακεδονίας πόλις κολωνία. Ημεν δέ εν αυτη τη πόλει διατρίβοντες ημέρας τινάς, τη τε ημέρα των σαββάτων εξήλθομεν εξω της πόλεως παρά ποταμόν ου ενομίζετο προσευχή ειναι, καὶ καθίσαντες ελαλουμεν ταις συνελθούσαις γυναιξί. Καὶ τις γυνή ονόματι Λυδία, πορφυρόπωλις πόλεως Θυατείρων, σεβομένη τόν Θεόν, ηκουεν, ης ο Κύριος διήνοιξε τήν καρδίαν προσέχειν τοις λαλουμένοις υπό του Παύλου. ̔Ως δέ εβαπτίσθη καὶ ο οικος αυτης, παρεκάλεσε λέγουσα· ει κεκρίκατέ με πιστήν τω Κυρίω είναι, εισελθόντες εις τόν οικόν μου μείνατε· καὶ παρεβιάσατο ημας. Πράξ. ις ́ 8-15.

48 See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saints_Cyril_and_Methodius

49 ––Πολλοί μέν ουν εξ αυτων επίστευσαν, καὶ των ̔Ελληνίδων γυναικων των ευσχημόνων καὶ ανδρων ουκ ολίγοι.>> Πράξ. ιζ ́ 12.

50 See, St. Timothy, Paul’s Associate, Christianity.com.

51 <<Δίον>> η πόλις του Διός.

52 See, <<Εις τό Ονομα του ̔Αγίου ̓Αλεξάνδρου του Μακεδόνα>>, dailynews24.gr, August 22, 2011.

53 << Ωκουν γάρ οι Σελλοί Ελλοί ενταυθα καὶ οι καλούμενοι τότε μέν Γραικοί νυν δέ Ελληνες.̈̈ ( ̓Αριστοτέλης, Μετεωρολογικά Α 14).

54 In 1948, Cominform, the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, put into action a plan to take hostage to communist countries children from Greece during the Greek civil war. The aim was to re-educate the children as well as blackmail the populace and the Greek government towards reaching a settlement leading to a partition of Greece and the subsequent creation of an internationalist "Macedonian" Republic. This move has favoured by the Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito and had been a Comitern policy aimed at destroying the national states of the Balkans through the creation of internationalist republics.

55 Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to call their nation “Macedonia” and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23.

56 There is a series of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from these perspectives, as they can be seen in the references, at the end of the paper.

57 Χαλκιδική (Chalkidiki) was a colony of Ancient Χαλκίς (Chalcis) of Ευβοια (Euboea). See, http://www.macedoniahellenicland.eu/content/view/2143/65/lang,el/

58 ––Τό ̔Υπουργεῖο ̓Εξωτερικῶν τῶν Η.Π.Α. σημείωσε μέ σημαντικό ενδιαφέρον αυξανόμενες προπαγανδιστικές διαδόσεις καὶ ημιεπίσημες δηλώσεις υπέρ μιας αυτόνομης Μακεδονίας, πού προέρχονται κυρίως από τή Βουλγαρία, αλλά επίσης καὶ από Γιουγκοσλαβικές πηγές παρτιζάνων καὶ αλλων, μέ τήν πρόθεση νά συμπεριληφθουν καὶ ελληνικές περιοχές στό υπό διαμόρφωση κράτος.  ̔Η Κυβέρνηση των ΗΠΑ θεωρει τίς συζητήσεις περί Μακεδονικου κράτους”, Μακεδονικης πατρίδας η Μακεδονικης εθνικης συνειδήσεως αδικαιολόγητη δημαγωγία, πού δέν αντιπροσωπεύει εθνική η πολιτική πραγματικότητα καὶ διαβλέπει μέ τή σημερινή της επανεμφάνιση σέ μία πιθανη συγκάλυψη επιθετικων προθέσεων κατά της ̔Ελλάδος.>> [U.S. State Department, Foreign Relations, Vol. viii, Washington, D.C., Circular Air gram (868.014/26 Dec. 1944)]. See, Voanerges, Issue 54, March-April 2011, p. 87.

59 The question here is, why are these papers and the majority of the other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust their subjective news and their prejudice information? Who is financing this anti-Greek propaganda? Of course, in academics, we have to search only for the truth and nothing else.

60 These names have been used in the past for the inhabitants of Skopje and as toponyms of that region. The ancient Macedonians annexed Paeonia, but they never annexed the region around Scupi (Skopje), which belonged to Dardania. The historically correct name for Skopje, then, is Dardania. The name of the province of Skopje (currently and wrongly, FYRM) was “Vardarska or Vardar with capital Skoplye”. See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59).

61 See, << ̔Ο Καμίνης εκοψε Προσευχή καὶ ̓Εθνικό Υμνο!>>, Hellas on the Web, August 22, 2011. http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2009-05-25-15-24-30/2009-07-11-08-19-41/1628-2011-08-22-08-13-18

62 <<Τσάμηδες-Νέα ̓Εθνική Τραγωδία εν Οψει>>, Schizas.Com-Πύλη ̓Ιάσωνος, September 8, 2011.

63 See, Δαμιανου Βασιλειάδη, << ̔Ο ̓Αφελληνισμός>>, Hellas on the Web, July 29, 2011, pp. 1-9.

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* Εθνική Βιβλιοθήκη Ελλάδος

* The Greek Mythology Website
produced by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
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for Classics and Archaeology.




 

 

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